1) What are the responsibilities of a construction manager?
Answer- The responsibilities are
• Cost Estimates
• Pre-purchase of selected materials
• Selection of bidders for the bidding phase
• Analysis of proposals
• Construction contract negotiations
• Construction Scheduling and Monitoring
• Cost control of construction
• Construction supervision
2) Can you describe what a projection line is?
Answer- The way in which the earth is displayed on a flat piece of paper is projection line.
3) List out some of the software programs that can be useful for the architect?
Answer- • AutoCAD
• 3DS Max
• Adobe creative suites
• Microsoft office
• Digital Media
4) Mention what is the composition of a landfill?
Answer- For secure landfill, there are four critical elements
• The bottom liner
• A leachate collection system
• A cover
• Natural hydrogeologic settings
5) What capital cost has to be taken into consideration for the construction project?
Answer- • Land acquisition (Assembly, holding and improvement)
• Planning and feasibility studies
• Construction ( Material, equipment, and labor)
• Construction financing ( Bank loan)
• Insurance and taxes during construction
• Owner’s general office overhead
• Inspection and testing
• Equipment and furnishing not included in the construction
• Field supervision, architectural and engineering design
6) List some software used in the construction sector to estimate cost and monitoring expenses?
Answer- •Tally System
• Maxwell System
• Premier construction software
• Construction partner, etc.
7) What things architect have to take care of before starting any project?
Answer- Whether the owner has proper planning permission
Whether the building has a certain listed grade approved
Knowledge of building appliances and materials that includes the cost as well
Need to take environmental factors into consideration
8) What are the different types of foundation?
Answer- The main types of foundation are
• Basement: In this, a basement is prepared first on top of its building is constructed
• Crawl space: A crawl space is a raised foundation, it is built above the ground, just allowing enough space to crawl underneath
• Slab: In this foundation, concrete is directly poured into the pit made in the ground.
9) What is Hybrid Foundation?
Answer- It is usually used for high rise building, it contains both soils supported mat and piles. It is helpful in reducing the amount of the settlement.
10) What are the common ways of demolition?
Answer- • Hydro-demolition
• Pressure Bursting
11) Explain what is a floating slab foundation?
Answer- A floating concrete foundation is a type of mat foundation that consists of the hollow mat formed by a grid of thick reinforced concrete walls between two thick reinforced concrete slabs.
12) Explain what is flashing?
Answer- It is an extended construction that is done to seal and protects joints in a building from water penetration. Flashing is installed at the intersecting roofs, walls, and parapets.
13) Mention different types of roof systems?
Answer- • Slate or Stone roofs
• Wood shingle roofs
• Metal roofing systems
14) Explain what are the phases inspections are done by local authority while construction?
Answer- Various inspections during the construction includes
• Site Inspection
• Pre-construction or first construction Inspection
• Foundation inspection(before placing of concrete)
• Framing inspection ( before insulating or covering frame)
• Insulation inspection ( After the insulation is completed)
• Final inspection (after all construction is completed, and permits are received)
15) List some of the checkings done at the completion of construction?
Answer- Some of the checking done on the exterior of the construction is
• Utility connections
• Retaining walls
• Compaction of fill material
• Caulking at opening
• Storm sewer system
• Safety provision (terraces, porches, areaways)
• Accessory buildings
• Pavement edging
• Protection against moisture penetration
• Design of dwelling structure
16) What is the change order request?
Answer- It is a written document issued or given by the owner, requesting an adjustment to the contract sum or an extension of the contract time. Usually, it is issued by the architect or owners representative.
17) Explain what is Critical Path Method (C.P.M)?
Answer- Critical Path Method is a strategy and method of representing the respective tasks and activities involved in the construction through a symbolic diagram.
18) What are demising walls?
Answer- It is used for the boundary that separates your land or house from neighbor’s house.
19) What are the labor and material payment bond?
Answer- A bond between the owner and the main contractor is known as labor and material payment bond. Where a contractor guarantees for payment to the owner if he fails to pay for all labor, materials, equipment’s or services in accordance with the contract.
20) Explain what is progress payment?
Answer- It is a payment done by the owner to the contractor; it is a difference between the completed work and material stored and a pre-determined schedule of values or unit costs.
21) Explain what are structural frames or systems?
Answer- Structural frames are a load bearing assembly of beams and columns on a foundation. Normally, the columns and beams are generally fabricated off-site and assembled on site.
22) Explain what is zoning permit?
Answer- Zoning permit is a document issued by governing urban authority permitting land to be used for a particular purpose.
23) Explain what is the release of lien?
Answer- Release of lien is a written document executed by an individual or firm supplying labor, material or professional service on a project, which release his mechanic’s lien against the project property.
24) What is Architect-Prepared Contract?
Answer- It is an agreement prepared in-house by the architect between owner and architect, and often reviewed by an attorney, before its execution. It is a legal contract, and it includes all terms and conditions including adequate legal protection for both the parties.
25) What is 1/8 on the architect ruler denotes?
Answer- 1/8 on the ruler is, in fact, a scale that converts 1/8 inch on to the drawing to 1 foot. It would represent a drawing with a scale of 1/8”= 1 foot.
26) Differentiate between built area and super built-up area?
Answer- • Built up area includes your carpet area plus area covered by walls, pillars, and ducts. It is usually 10% more from the carpet area
• Super built-up area includes your built up area plus the area that you use as building amenities like a passage to lift, stairs and lifts, gym, club, etc.
27) What are the skills required to become an architect?
Answer- • Conceptual understanding of designing models
• Basic knowledge of computer and architect related software programs
• Engineering ability
• Business aptitude
• Legal knowledge
• Designing 3D models
28) What is the alternate bid?
Answer- It is the amount stated in the bid to be deducted or added from the base bid amount. It is proposed when there is a use of alternate materials or methods of construction.
29) Can you list out the various steps involved in the concreting process?
Answer- The main steps involved in the concreting process are as follows:
• Transporting and placement of concrete
30) What is reinforced concrete?
Answer- These have steels bars or mesh in them, which gives extra strength to the construction.
31) What are the wooden shingles?
Answer- Wooden shingles are rectangular in shapes, and they are like slats or sheets that are nailed to the exterior surface. Shingling is a traditional weather proofing method for building.
32) How to build the floor to ceiling bookcase?
Answer- To build a floor to ceiling bookcase
• First measure the distance between the floor and ceiling
• Cut two boards of the length of that distance
• Cut two boards with the width you require
• Attach top and bottom boards to the side with 2-inch nails. Keep a gap about one or two inches between each nail
• Attach top and bottom boards to the side boards with the 2-inch nail. This will create a frame of your bookcase. Add the shelves to the bookcase the way you want and then paint it.
33) List out the types of roofs?
Answer- • Half hipped roof
• Dutch gable roof
• Skillion roof
• Gambrel roof
• Gull wind roof
• Mansard roof
• Bell cast roof
• Sawtooth roof
• Monitor roof, etc.
34) What should be the standard roof height like to be?
Answer- For inhabited building, the standard height for the roof should be one or two stories tall. If you don’t need to make roof taller and yet you want to make it look bigger from outside use a mansard roof containing multiple floors. The roof of the room can be adjusted by changing its pitch or by adding a parapet.
35) What are the problems one might face while having a Cantilever balcony?
Answer- Cantilever balcony is usually unsupported and extends outwards, so the problem with Cantilever balconies are
• Excess deflection or bounce
• The weakness of the deck structure
• Rot and water damage to the interior of the house
• Unevenness inside the house
• Can’t use the balcony for gardening or other purposes as it is not designed to lift excess amount of weight.
36) For what building Built-on balconies are preferable? What are the advantages?
Answer- Built on balconies are mainly designed for retrofitting older buildings. This free standing balcony is supported in front of the facade on four columns. They are backed to the wall with brackets.
The advantage of built-on balconies are
• Old balconies can be dismantled, and the new ones can be erected immediately in front of the faced without disturbing the inner structure of the building
• The work takes place outside of the house, so there is no interference to the interior of the building
37) What things did you need to take care of before building a kitchen island?
Answer- Before you start building a kitchen island, you need to take care of
• Design the kitchen island according to the need- if it is only for cooking purpose then use less space, but if it is also for eating then design it accordingly
• List out what appliances you need for your kitchen island
• How high the counter should be
• How much storage space should you required
• Working sides surrounding the kitchen island should have 42 inches of space as a minimum around the kitchen island. Don’t plan Kitchen Island if it makes your kitchen more congested.
38) What is the ideal size of the living room ranges from small to large size?
Answer- • Very small size living room= 7x10ft ( for two seater sofas on one side of the room)
• Small living room= 10x13ft ( for two 2 seater sofa)
• Medium living room= 12×18 (for 3 Seater sofa)
• Large living room= 15×20 ( for 4 seater or 5 seater sofa
39) What is OSHA compliance?
Answer- OSHA stands for Occupational Safety and Health Act; its motive is to fulfill the health and safety requirement of employees and workers. It is a standard for health and safety that is followed by every industrial segment and corporate offices throughout U.S.A.