Computer Terms

Below is the list of important computer terminologies:

* Internet Internet connect a computer to any other computer anywhere in the world via dedicated routers and servers.Internet refers to network of networks. In this network each computer is recognized by a globally unique address known as IP address. if two computer are connected through internet then they can share all kinds of information such as text, graphics, voice, video, and computer programs.

* Intranet A local or restricted communications network, especially a private network created using World Wide Web software.

* Protocol Protocol is the special set of rules that end points in a telecommunication connection use when they communicate. Protocols specify interactions between the communicating entities.

* Extranet An extranet is a website that allows controlled access to partners, vendors and suppliers or an authorized set of customers – normally to a subset of the information accessible from an organization’s intranet.

* DNS Domain name server -Most prominently, it translates domain names, which can be easily memorized by humans, to the numerical IP addresses needed for the purpose of computer services and devices worldwide . Every time you use a domain name, therefore, a DNS service must translate the name into the corresponding IP address.

* Browser A computer program with a graphical user interface for displaying HTML files, used to navigate the World Wide Web.

* Web Crawler A Web crawler is an Internet bot which systematically browses the World Wide Web, typically for the purpose of Web indexing. Web crawler may also be called a Web Spider, an ant, an automatic indexer, or (in the FOAF software context) a Web scutter.

* Search Engines Search engines are programs that search documents for specified keywords and returns a list of the documents where the keywords were found. Some search engines allow inclusion of Boolean operators (see Boolean search) such as ‘And,’ ‘Or,’ ‘Not,’ that make a search specific and faster.

* Traffic Congestion Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles.

* Cloud Computing The practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data, rather than a local server or a personal computer.

* Digital Signature A digital code (generated and authenticated by public key encryption) which is attached to an electronically transmitted document to verify its contents and the sender’s identity.

* URLUniform Resource Locator – is nothing but a web page’s address, or in other words URL specifies the address of every file on the internet.

URL has three parts:
(i) the protocol to be used to access the file = {http://}
(ii) the IP address = {}
(iii) the domain name = {.com}

* Wi-fi“Wi-Fi” is a type of wireless networking protocol that allows devices to communicate without cords or cables. A wireless network uses radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios

* LAN A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, or office building.

Types of LAN:

(i) Star LAN: A local-area network (LAN) that uses a star topology in which all nodes are connected to a central computer.

(ii) Ring LAN: In ring LAN, the computers in the network are connected in a circular fashion, and the data travels in one direction.

(iii) Bus LAN: Bus LAN uses one main cable to which all nodes are directly connected. The main cable acts as a backbone for the network.

* WAN A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs).

Types of WAN:

(i) Public Network: These networks are owned and run by telecommunication authorities.These are made available to an individual subscriber or an organization.

(ii) Public Switched Telephone Network(PSTN): PSTN has been designed for telephone,which requires modem for data communication.

(iii) Public Service Digital Network(PSDN): PSDN is a popular mode for connecting public and private mail system to have electronic mail services with other forms.

(iv) Integrated Services Digital Network(ISDN): Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a digital circuit switching technology used to transport voice, data, and video.

* E-MAIL Electronic mail is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Email operates across the Internet or other computer networks.

* WWW( World Wide Web ) The World Wide Web is a system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language called HTML (HyperText Markup Language) that supports links to other documents, as well as graphics, audio, and video files. This means you can jump from one document to another simply by clicking on hot spots. Not all Internet servers are part of the World Wide Web.World Wide Web is not synonymous with the Internet.

* Modems A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over telephone or cable lines. Computer information is stored digitally, whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves.

* Digital Modems A digital modem does not have to convert between analog and digital signal.A digital signal modem is faster than an analog modem.

Types of digital Modem
(i) ISDN Modem
(ii) Cable Modem
(iii) DSL(Commonly used for ASDL)

* Arithmetic Logic Unit There can be more than one Arithmetic logic unit in a CPU, and these ALUs can also be used for the purpose of maintaining timers that help run the computer.It is a part of CPU that performs all arithmetic computations including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The Arithmetic Logic Unit also performs all logical operations.

* Control Unit The CPU’s control unit is responsible for executing or storing the results coming out of the ALU. Within the CPU, the control unit performs the functions of fetch, decode, execute, and store.It communicates with both the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and memory.

* Registers Registers are temporary storage areas which are responsible for holding the data that is to be processed.They store the instructions and data in a processor.This data is further used by Control Unit.There are some registers that are set aside for specific tasks, these generally include a program counter, stack, and flags.

* Binary system Number system that uses only two values (0,1; on, off) to represent codes and data.Binary is a two-digit (Base-2) numerical system, which computers use to store data and compute functions. The reason computers use the binary system is because digital switches inside the computer can only be set to either on or off, which are represented by a 1 or 0. Though the binary system consists of only ones and zeros, the two digits can be used to represent any number.

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